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20.1 Why so many time objects?

Marpa is an aggressively multi-pass algorithm. Marpa achieves its efficiency, not in spite of making multiple passes over the data, but because of it. Marpa regularly substitutes two fast O(n) passes for a single O(n log n) pass. Marpa’s proliferation of time objects is in keeping with its multi-pass approach.

Bocage objects come at no cost, even for unambiguous parses, because the same pass which creates the bocage also deals with other issues which are of major significance for unambiguous parses. It is the post-processing of the bocage pass that enables Marpa to do both left- and right-recursion in linear time.

Of the various objects, the best case for elimination is of the ordering object. In many cases, the ordering is trivial. Either the parse is unambiguous, or the application does not care about the order in which parses are returned. But while it would be easy to add an option to bypass creation of an ordering object, there is little to be gained from it. When the ordering is trivial, its overhead is very small — essentially a handful of subroutine calls. Many orderings accomplish nothing, but these cost next to nothing.

Tree objects come at minimal cost to unambiguous grammars, because the same pass that allows iteration through multiple parse trees does the tree traversal. This eliminates much of the work that otherwise would need to be done in the valuation time object. In the current implement, the valuation time object needs only to step through a sequence already determined in the tree iterator.

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